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長難句結構分析示例 by CHEN Huping.ppt
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長難句結構分析示例 by CHEN Huping.ppt介紹

長難句結構分析示例 by CHEN Huping.ppt
長難句結構分析主語賓語np1 主謂語動詞n+1 先主干后修飾np1 V np1 S=np1 of np2 on np3 that v1 o1 V O=np1 of np2 that v1 o1, which v2o2. 先主句后從句Although SVO,SVO. 長名詞短語( LNP ) NP1 of NP2 on NP3 in NP4 	NP1 of NP2 of why S V O 	NP1 of NP2, done by…, to NP3 	NP1’s NP2 to NP3 about NP4 	His NP1 of NP2 over NP3 	 抓住第一實義名詞 LNP: p54.29 Between the early 1870’s and the 1890’s, the mounting agrarian discontent in America paralleled the almost uninterrupted decline in the prices of American agricultural products on foreign markets. LNP: p89.5 A critique of the Handlins’ interpretation of why legal slavery did not appear until the 1660’s suggests that assumptions about the relation between slavery and racial prejudice should be reexamined, and that explanations for the different treatment of Black slaves in North and South America should be expanded. LNP: p128.4 [But] after more than a century of investigation, the relation of these and other phenomena, known collectively as the solar-activity cycle, to terrestrial weather and climate remains unclear. LNP: p128.11 The absence of recorded sunspot activity in the notes kept by European observers in the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries has led some scholars to postulate a brief cessation of sunspot activity at that time (a period called the Maunder minimum). 一個邏輯層次 : SVO 一層修飾 : S(that)VO(that) 	S 				 V	 O 	,NP/adj./as NP, adv. same as S 	v-ed, v-ing to v. such as 	that/which/who by v-ing	 	,NP that…, 	# S=that SVO; O=that SVO. S(that) V O(that): p72.19 	The ease with which a fish can reverse the effect of the sidedness of its eye asymmetry simply by turning around has caused biologists to study internal anatomy, especially the optic nerves, for the answer. S(that) V O(that): p54.16 	The emphasis given by both scholars and statesmen to the presumed disappearance of the American frontier helped to obscure the great importance of changes in the conditions and consequences of international trade that occurred during the second half of the nineteenth century. S(that) V O(that): p89.28 	Freyre and Tannenbaum have rightly argued that the lack of certain traditions in North America — such as a Roman conception of slavery and a Roman Catholic emphasis on equality — explains why the treatment of Black slaves was more severe there than in the Spanish and Portuguese colonies of South America. S(that) V O(that): p74.8 	My point is that its central consciousness — its profound understanding of class and gender as shaping influences on people’s lives — owes much to that earlier literary heritage, a heritage that, in general, has not been sufficiently valued by most contemporary literary critics. S(that) V O(that): p36.23 	Studies by Hargrave and Geen estimated natural community grazing rates [by measuring feeding rates of individual zooplankton species in the laboratory and then computing community grazing rates for field conditions using the known population density of grazers]. 多層修飾:遞歸原則S (that (that)) V O (that (that (that))). 	 ≤ 1 ≤ 3	 	Research has demonstrated that advective flow, which originates near the surface of the ocean where suspended particulate matter accumulates, transports some of that matter and water to the vents. (p105.34) S (that) V O (that (that)): p36.11 	Perhaps the fact that many of these first studies considered only algae of a size that could be collected in a net (net phytoplankton), a practice that overlooked the smaller phytoplankton (nannoplankton) that we now know grazers are most likely to feed on, led to a de-emphasis of the role of grazers in subsequent research. S (that) V O (that (that)): p80.1 	In the early 1950’s, historians who studied preindustrial Europe (which we may define here as Europe in the period from roughly 1300 to 1800) began, for the first time in large numbers, to investigate more of the preindustrial European population than the 2 or 3 percent who comprised the political and social elite: the kings, generals, judges, nobles, bishops, and local magnates who had hitherto usually filled history books. S (that) V O (that (that)): p94.17 	All this was unified by being subjected to the same kind of religious scrutiny, the impact of which varied greatly, being almost nonexistent in some fields, and in others originating novel institutions. SVO; SVO 兩個邏輯層次:并列與對比If / When / Because SVO, SVO. SVO: SVO; SVO; and SVO. Although SVO, SVO. S less VO than VO. SVO; however SVO. SVO(that); S(that)VO(that): p76.7 	In addition, the Iliad, more than the Odyssey, suggests the complexity of the gods’ involvement in human actions, and to the extent that modern readers find this complexity a needless complication, the Iliad is less satisfying than the Odyssey, with its simpler ‘scheme of divine justice. SVO(that); S(that)VO(that): p168.3 	According to Arrom, households headed by females and instances of women working outside the home were much more common than scholars have estimated; efforts by the Mexican government to encourage female education resulted in increased female literacy; and influential male writers wrote pieces advocating education, employment, and increased family responsibilities for women, while deploring women’s political and marital inequality. SVO(that); S(that)VO(that): p94.9 	Though historically there is a discernible break between Jewish law of the sovereign state of ancient Israel and of the Diaspora (the dispersion of Jewish people after the conquest of Israel), the spirit of the legal matter in later parts of the Old Testament is very close to that of the Talmud, one of the primary codifications of Jewish law in the Diaspora. 多層修飾 + 多個邏輯 SVO(that(that)); S(that)VO(that(that)). SVO(that); SVO(that); SVO(that(that)). 	 先主干后修飾;先主句后從句S, NP that…, V, O that … (which…) and that …; SVO that, while v-ing… that…, without v-ing, v-ed…which…., with NP that VO; however, S, which…, V to V, O that is less than O whose… because SVO such as NP, NP, and NP. SVO(that(that)); S(that)VO(that(that)). 	Islam, on the other hand, represented a radical breakaway from the Arab paganism that preceded it; Islamic law is the result of an examination, from a religious angle, of legal subject matter that was far from uniform, comprising as it did the various components of the laws of pre-Islamic Arabia and numerous legal elements taken over from the non-Arab peoples of the conquered territories. (p94.13) SVO(that(that)); S(that)VO(that(that)). 	With regard to this last question, we might note in passing that Thompson, while rightly restoring laboring people to the stage of eighteenth-century English history, has probably exaggerated the opposition of these people to the inroads of capitalist consumerism in general; for example, laboring people in eighteenth-century England readily shifted from home-brewed beer to standardized beer produced by huge, heavily capitalized urban breweries. (p175.13) * *

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